Multivariate Analyses of Variance (MANOVA) were run for science and mathematics teachers separately to address both questions. The analyses were run separately for Spring 2006, Spring 2007 and Spring 2008. The dependent variables were the three subscales of the ITAL and the independent variable was participation in a PRISM LC. Participation in a PRISM LC is associated with greater emphasis on standardsbased teaching and learning practices in both mathematics and science K12 classrooms. This finding is not surprising given the context in Georgia. New, more rigorous, performance standards in science and mathematics are being implemented on a phased rollout schedule. The state of Georgia has been using a trainthetrainer model and large workshops to deliver training to teachers. This is reflected in the relatively high means on reported emphasis on standardsbased teaching and learning for both PRISM LC participants and nonparticipants. PRISM LCs have the potential to increase the impact on teaching practices because they are communitybased, ongoing and focus on data use and action research to improve practice. These findings are consistent across subjects and years.
A further finding is that teachers report greater emphasis on inquirybased teaching and learning practices when there is an IHE faculty member working with the LC. Again the effect size was relatively small, but the finding was consistent over three years. Future studies will explore this relationship further, including investigating whether or not the role of the IHE faculty member (e.g., participant, facilitator, resource) is related to teaching effectiveness and whether the impact on teaching and learning of participation in a LC, with and without an IHE member, influences student achievement. Studies will also investigate the effectiveness of working with P16 LCs on IHE teaching and learning practices. Descriptive statistics, F statistics, p values and effect sizes are included in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1. PRISM LC vs. no LC.
Mean Scores on ITAL subscales for mathematics and science teachers who did and did not participate in a PRISM learning community (LC). Scale ranges from 1 = No Emphasis to 6 =Very Strong Emphasis.
Spring 2006  Inquirybased Teaching & Learning 
Standardsbased Teaching & Learning  Traditional Teaching & Learning  
PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  
Mathematics 






M  4.67  4.62  5.37  5.27^{1}  3.86  3.82 
SD  .76  .82  .58  .67  .76  .80 
n 
1035  1163  1035 
1163  1035  1163 
Science 






M  4.67  4.65  5.34  5.26^{2}  3.81  3.84 
SD  .79  .84  .61  .69  .77  .81 
n 
894  1004  894 
1004  894  1004 
Spring 2007  Inquirybased Teaching & Learning  Standardsbased Teaching & Learning  Traditional Teaching & Learning  
PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  
Mathematics 






M  4.65  4.64  5.37  5.29^{3}  3.67  3.63 
SD  .76  .81  .58  .68  .81  .85 
n 
736  796  736  796  736  796 
Science 






M  4.65  4.57  5.28  5.11^{4}  3.62  3.60 
SD  .78  .87  .77  1.02 
.82  .89 
n 
660  688  660  688  660  688 
Spring 2008  Inquirybased Teaching & Learning  Standardsbased Teaching & Learning  Traditional Teaching & Learning  
PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  
Mathematics 






M  4.72  4.71  5.36  5.27^{5}  3.60  3.52 
SD  .75  .78  .56  .62  .83  .86 
n 
814  1092  814 
1092  814  1092 
Science 






M  4.78 
4.67^{6}  5.39  5.25^{7}  3.64  3.58 
SD  .75  .80  .55  .64  .82  .87 
n 
719  950  719  950  719  950 
^{1} mean difference for standardsbased teaching and learning,
mathematics, p<.001; h2p = .006
^{ 2} mean difference for
standardsbased teaching and learning, science, p<.01; h2p = .004
^{
3} mean difference for standardsbased teaching and learning, mathematics, p<.01;
h2p = .004
^{ 4} mean difference for standardsbased teaching and
learning, science, p<.001; h2p = .008
^{ 5} mean difference for
standardsbased teaching and learning, mathematics, p<.001; h2p = .005
^{6} mean difference for inquirybased teaching and learning, science, p<.005;
h2p = .005
^{ 7} mean difference for standardsbased teaching and
learning, science, p<.000; h2p = .012
Table 2. IHE vs. no IHE faculty in LC
Mean Scores on ITAL subscales for mathematics and science K12 teachers who participated in a PRISM leaning community (LC) with or without a higher education faculty member. Only PRISM LC participants who regularly attended LC meetings are included in this analysis. Scale ranges from 1 = No Emphasis to 6 =Very Strong Emphasis.
Spring 2006  Inquirybased Teaching & Learning  Standardsbased Teaching & Learning  Traditional Teaching & Learning  
IHE 
no IHE  IHE  no IHE  IHE 
no IHE  
Mathematics 






M  4.76  4.51^{1}  5.40  5.303  3.82  3.85 
SD  .73  .78  .56  .66  .75  .76 
n 
507  227  507  227  507  227 
Science 






M  4.74  4.52^{2}  5.36  5.26  3.80  3.77 
SD  .79  .78  .56  .70  .78  .78 
n 
454  182  454  182  454  182 
Spring 2007  Inquirybased Teaching & Learning  Standardsbased Teaching & Learning  Traditional Teaching & Learning  
IHE  no IHE  IHE  no IHE 
IHE  no IHE  
Mathematics 






M  4.73  4.50^{4}  5.37  5.35  3.65  3.70 
SD  .72  .81  .58  .58  .81  .81 
n 
472  245  472  245  472  245 
Science 






M  4.68  4.58  5.31 
5.26  3.61  3.65 
SD  .77  .79  .72  .75  .81  .83 
n  440  200  440  200  440  200 
Spring 2007  Inquirybased Teaching & Learning  Standardsbased Teaching & Learning  Traditional Teaching & Learning  
PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  PRISM LC  not in LC  
Mathematics 






M  4.77  4.57^{5}  5.37  5.30  3.58  3.62 
SD  .73  .79  .54  .61  .84  .82 
n 
559  233  559  233  559  233 
Science 






M  4.82  4.66^{6}  5.39  5.36  3.63  3.65 
SD  .75  .75  .54  .56  .84  .77 
n 
517  183  517  183  517  183 
^{1} mean difference for inquirybased teaching and learning,
mathematics, p<.001; h2p = .023
^{2} mean difference for
inquirybased teaching and learning, science, p<.01; h2p = .016
^{3} mean difference for standardsbased teaching and learning, mathematics,
p<.05; h2p = .007
^{4} mean difference for inquirybased teaching
and learning, mathematics, p<.001; h2p = .020
^{5} mean difference
for inquirybased teaching and learning, mathematics, p<.001; h2p = .014
^{ 6} mean difference for inquirybased teaching and learning, science, p<.012;
h2p = .009